Bougainville Revolutionary Army, Communiqué, 29 November 1989. This paved the way for the PNGDF to return to the island during September 1990. These conditions were unacceptable to the national government. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. No one was exempted from the violence. A peace agreement resulted in the creation of the Autonomous Bougainville Government. Our goal is not only to expose the lies, hypocrisy and bias of the billionaire class and their media: we seek to help the organising efforts of all those actively resisting the increasingly authoritarian rule of the corporate rich, here and overseas. A bloody civil war ensued, which took up to 20,000 lives on an island of 175,000 people. Much to the PLA’s disbelief, the inquiry concluded that “BCL has done good work” (BCL 1988). De 1778 à 1782, Bougainville participe à la guerre d'ind… PNGDF soldiers also began to experiment with the use of mortars on civilian areas, including white phosphorous rounds. Extra-judicial killings, forced displacement, the internment of civilians, and the denial of humanitarian aid, were just some of the egregious tactics employed by the military. In late March the overwhelmed security forces retreated also, after having suffered a number of serious losses. Available online. Ten years of fighting for autonomy from Papua New Guinea and a brutal civil war ravaged the country in the 80s and 90s. The government offered the moderates a generous peace settlement if they could persuade villagers to withdraw their support for the more radical PLA executive. With revenues from the mine grinding to a halt, and PNG’s international investment reputation at risk, two new Ministers entered cabinet with a strategy for resolving the situation. But a military blockade has been placed around Bougainville. British-Australian mining giant Rio Tinto is seriously contemplating reopening its Bougainville copper and gold mine, Reuters reported on February 7. The political structure of Bougainville as an autonomous region within Papua New Guinea reflects the important need, following the civil war, for parliamentary representation of different interest groups. Much of what I'd read about Bougainville before arriving painted a picture of a troubled and unstable country. There are also reports that the Solomon Islands was again attacked the day before the Bougainville landing. Having been briefed on BCL’s views, the national government looked for a middle road. Young freedom fighter from the Bougainville Revolutionary Army in 1994. Collier, P., and Hoeffler, A. Tanis, J. Bougainville remains part of Papua New Guinea (PNG) and has four elected representatives in the PNG national parliament. loyalist) force. However, the BRA’s leadership was adamant, any permanent solution to the conflict would require: 1) The withdrawal of the government’s security forces from Bougainville; 2) The permanent closure of the mine; and 3) The holding of a referendum to decide the question of independence. Cramer, C. (2006), Civil War is Not a Stupid Thing. Matilda’s mother, Dolores—a brave, deeply religious woman—endlessly promises her pining daughter that they will take the next boat to reunite with her father. Polomka, P. Lasslett, K. (2012). That night BCL’s Managing Director was awoken by a phone call from the company’s General Manager for Commercial, Ken Perry. The Bougainville Crisis: 1991 Update. Available online. (2002). Bougainville: Perspectives on a Crisis, Canberra: Strategic and Defence Studies Centre. In order to press home this customary power, clan groups in the Bougainville mine area organised themselves through the Panguna Landowners Association (PLA). Shot dead by the PNG soldiers, her abdomen was then cut open to remove the foetus. Situated on Papua New Guinea’s (PNG) eastern border with the Solomon Islands, the company's Bougainville operation was forcefully closed down in November 1988 by traditional landowners who objected to the mine’s environmental and social effects. The war has been described as the largest conflict in Oceania since the end of World War II, with an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 Bougainvillean dead. According to a former District Commander of the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary (RPNGC): “Basically the mobile squad people are semi-military, they are aggressive, they don’t do what normal policeman do, they go in there and they beat a few heads in. Following the declaration of emergency the PNGDF initiated a series of counterinsurgency operations which were designed to clear the mine area of civilians, thus undermining the BRA’s ability to operate in the mine vicinity. (ed.) Green Left Weekly has been an outstanding proponent of clear-headed political analysis for years. The referendum was part of a ceasefire agreement that ended a brutal decade-long civil war in 1998, which was followed by the 2001 signing of the Bougainville Peace Agreement. (1992). Regan, A. J., and Griffin, H. M. One manager told me: “We did everything they [PNG security forces] asked of us to make their life more comfortable, and better able to manage through, with transport, communications, provisions, whatever, fuel. Berdal, M. and Malone, D. M. Bougainville: Rio Tinto faces war crimes allegations in bid to reopen mine. (eds.) Kramer, R. C., and Michalowski, R. J. Rogers, T. A. Green, P. and Ward, T. (2004) State Crime: Governments, Violence and Corruption, London: Pluto Press. London: Routledge. Amnesty International. Available online, Miriori, M. (2002). This framework received a major boost when the military revolted against the national government’s plan to employ the private military company, Sandline International, during early 1997. We didn’t have the logistics to go in, but when you have a call out, and the national government wants you to go, what do you do? Bathurst: Crawford House Press. The PNGDF, with assistance from the Australian Defence Force, instrumentalised these tensions – their plan was to exacerbate the growing divisions on Bougainville by continuing the blockade, and by engaging in psychological operations. Dom Rotheroe who provided excerpts from his documentary film, 'A Coconut Revolution'. While this alone was remarkable just before the turn of the millennium, what is absolutely astonishing was that the weapons had been “resurrected” from the WWII battlefields. These allegations were featured in a hard-hitting Dateline report aired on SBS TV in 2011. At this stage in the dispute BCL feared that the PLA was intending to alter the legal arrangements which governed the mining operation, using threats and emotive rhetoric. Bougainville — Tier I croiseur. Sadly, no one has ever been charged or tried for the war crimes committed on Bougainville. The International State Crime Initiative would like to thank the following contributors: Amanda King and Fabio Cavadini of Frontyard Films who provided excerpts from their documentary film, 'An Evergreen Island'. Armed opposition to the BRA in the form of a group calling itself the Bougainville Liberation Front had arisen in several areas, leading Bougainville into the quagmire of civil war. Hagens Berman Sobol Shapiro. As a result, they instructed a PNGDF officer, Leo Nuia, to prepare the PNGDF for a decisive assault on BRA strongholds. Then deal with the other issues (BCL, PNG, etc) in their own priority, in their own way in their own time. In response, company executives adamantly denied complicity. Case Study published 2012. However, in August 1987, a new PLA executive was elected. (2000) Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars, Boulder: Lynne Reinner. Until Rio Tinto commits to full disclosure, any attempt to reopen the Bougainville mine will be another corporate blight on the deeply scarred people of this Melanesian island. In the latter event, the BRA’s opposition could be militarised and used as an ‘indigenous’ pro-government paramilitary (i.e. Operation Footloose, as it was known, aimed to fracture the BRA command using extreme force. Kramer, R. C., Michalowski, R. J. and Kauzlarich, D. (2002) ‘The Origins and Development of the Concept and Theory of State-Corporate Crime’, Crime & Delinquency, 48(2), 263–282. Ted Diro, the Minister of State, and Ben Sabumei, the Minister for Defence, persuaded their cabinet colleagues that a state of emergency must be declared, and the BRA neutralised using military force. That said, communities on Bougainville have yet to be fully briefed on Rio Tinto’s role in defence force operations during the bloody years of 1988-1990. Believing that the law and order operation had demonstrated the government’s capacity to impose its authority, a meeting was called with moderate landowners opposed to Francis Ona. Indeed, many of the senior political figures who permitted and even applauded the atrocities, retained public office following the conflict. I am requesting information you may possess on any suspected war crimes or war time atrocities committed by any and all parties to the Bougainville Civil War (1988-1998) or during the subsequent peace process. At the time, the Panguna open cut mine was the largest in the world. The 1988-1998 conflict on the Papua New Guinea island of Bougainville saw use of WWII weapons. Frightened ignorant thugs with guns. Assisted by moderate leaders on all sides, Bougainville’s burgeoning civil society was able to slowly develop a framework for peace. Mr Speaker, it had become a military problem requiring a military solution … The Government has accepted the inevitable reality that many lives will be lost and injured on both sides” (National Parliament of PNG, Record of Proceedings, 11 July, 1989). Alternatively, you can send your message to En 1756, il fait partie de l'expédition au Canada sous les ordres de Louis-Joseph de Montcalm. Internment camps, the mortaring of children, aerial bombardments, assassinations, rape, and the denial of humanitarian aid — these are just some of the criminal state practices endured by civilians during Papua New Guinea’s decade-long civil war on the island of Bougainville (1988-1998). By August 1989 BCL was satisfied that the rebels were on the back-foot, consequently they agreed to begin repairing the mine. Once again, the military used its entire arsenal – which included 81 mm mortars, M16s, M203s, M79s, and four Iroquois helicopters rigged with M60s – to bombard villages. Il devient avocat, puis s'engage dans l'armée. These sentiments were shared by PNG’s Police Commissioner. (2000). Concerned by growing inequality, foreign exploitation, intra-community friction, environmental harm and poverty, the new PLA embarked upon a campaign of civil disobedience. Lasslett, K. (2009). ‘Perspectives on a Crisis (5)’, in Polomka, P. Bougainville is a semi-autonomous, resource-rich region of PNG with its own administration, but dependent on the national government for most of its income. There is no vacuum or hermetic sealing - merely a very logical time frame - not some chaotic outsider driven free for all. A … Following peace negotiations with PLA activists, the national government announced that in return for the executive’s cooperation in recovering stolen explosives, the government would initiate a review of the Bougainville Copper Agreement. BCL director Sir Rabbie Namaliu told The Australian on July 16, 2011: “To suggest that Rio did it deliberately is factually wrong. (2002). ), Contemporary State Terrorism: Theory and Practice. BCL’s Managing Director immediately phoned key Ministers and organised an emergency meeting for the following morning. Green Left is a vital social-change project and aims to make all content available online, without paywalls. Ogan, E. (1990). Bathurst: Crawford House Press. Standish, B. The meeting ended on a sour note. Consequently, BCL refused to meet the PLA’s demands, and instead affirmed their commitment to meeting the company’s existing obligations as set out under the Bougainville Copper Agreement. However, Australia’s greatest fear was that the uprising would cause PNG’s fragile state apparatus to crack. (2007), ‘The Dynamics of Papua New Guinea’s Democracy: An Essay’, Pacific Economic Bulletin, 22/1: 135–157. During this invasion, Task Force 39, led by … Having marshalled 500 PNGDF troops, 300 RPNGC mobile squad officers, and 100 Correctional Service officers, Colonel Nuia implements a major military offensive in January 1990 in a last ditch effort to nuetralise the rebels and reopen the mine (by this stage BCL’s cash reserves were seriously depleted). BCL responded favourably. Photo by Francis O'Neill, via Like East Timor in the 1970s, the con­flict rarely made the headlines. The International State Crime Initiative’s multi-media presentation on the Bougainville conflict, which includes BCL memorandums and meeting minutes, can be accessed here.]. With no corporate sponsors or advertising, we rely on support and donations from readers like you. According to Rogers (2002: 238) Colonel Nuia “was a hardliner with little sympathy for the secessionists”. PNG’s Defence Minister boasted, “we have shown the military destruction that can be caused, if ever they decided to start again. ), Weaving Consensus: The Papua New Guinea-Bougainville Peace Process. Sydney: AID/WATCH. During early 1989 unrest on Bougainville grew as militants began to attack the property of local businessman. Retrouvez Breaking Spears and Mending Hearts: Peacemakers and Restorative Justice in Bougainville et des millions de livres en stock sur Ballentine, K. and Sherman, J. Conflict over the Panguna mine became the primary trigger for the Bougainville Civil War (1988–1998), which resulted in the deaths of up to 20,000 people. ... justice to victims is an immense challenge given that there has been no investigation into the scale and details of atrocities. Bougainville Copper Limited (1988), Meeting Minutes, 18 November. Loyalist paramilitaries on Bougainvilleans were supplied with weapons and money by the national government. Reconciliation and Architectures of Commitment: Sequencing Peace in Bougainville. Well, its executives seem fairly cogent on this front too. The dead foetus was then placed on the chest of the dead mother for all to see — as a warning.”. The war crimes committed by government security forces in the conflict were horrific. A loyalist leader, Thomas Anis, claimed “we are fighting a civil war which involves arms, violence and psychological struggle for power – a warfare in which only the fittest will survive” (Post-Courier, 07/01/1991). For example, I interviewed eight senior managers who worked for BCL during 1987-1992. For $10 per month get the above and the print edition delivered to your door. “You know, we gave them everything, because as a far as we saw it we were hoping that they were going to solve the situation, so we could start operating again. Despite lack of local support for the moderate landowner faction cobbled together earlier in the year, the agreement was scheduled to be signed on 11 September 1989, several days after the mine’s official re-opening. Né en 1729 à Paris, Louis-Antoine de Bougainville est le fils d'un notaire et échevin de la ville de Paris. Memorandum to CRA Directors, 6 December 1988. I am sure they are attracting a degree of community support from war-weary Bougainvilleans looking to rebuild their shattered island. Situated on Papua New Guinea’s (PNG) eastern border with the Solomon Islands, the company's Bougainville operation was forcefully closed down in November 1988 by traditional landowners who objected to the mine’s environmental and social effects. Alex Smailes for images used in the background for chapters 4-6 and the contributors/title sections. Following a large protest in April 1988, the PLA’s leaders handed BCL a letter which outlined their demands. This Accord examines the creative initiatives that helped to end the violence, and describes an indigenous peace process that drew on the strengths of Melanesian traditions. Regan, A. J. During Operation Footloose the BRA staged a significant counter-attack that surprised PNG’s security forces. (1990). Le Billon, P. (2005) 'Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict'. Namaliu is hardly an uncompromised source. That said, a new generation of activists in Bougainville are beginning to resist the mine’s reopening, though they face stiff opposition from the Autonomous Bougainville Government and pro-mining landowners. Origins of the Bougainville Conflict is an excerpt from the two-part documentary Paradise Imperfect made in 2000.. Paradise Imperfect In 2000 the ABC’s Pacific Correspondent Sean Dorney travelled to the war zones of Bougainville to look at the impact of the nine year secessionist conflict and the … When I heard about those claims, I thought the whole thing was rather unfair.”. (eds.) So we supported them every way we could.”. Perhaps BCL was unaware of the ends to which this logistic support would be applied? Correspondence from Francis Ona to Rabbie Namaliu, 20 June 1989. Clive Parabou for images used in the background for chapters 1, 2, 3 and 7, in addition to the title and further readings sections. Forget about your differences and struggle for only one goal: to save the lives of our future generations”. (1997). During this ‘law and order operation’ hundreds of homes were burnt to the ground by security forces, along with crops. Despite its remote location the development of a major copper deposit in Bougainville’s Crown Prince Ranges made the island one of PNG’s most strategically significant areas. Brunnschweiler, C., and Bulte E. H. (2008) 'The resource curse revisited and revised: a tale of paradoxes and red herrings', Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 55(3), 248-264. In the following case study you will be exposed to the calculations, relations, and decisions that led two democratic states and a major multinational mining corporation, to organise a systematic campaign of state violence that terrorised the residents of Bougainville for almost a decade. ‘Ecocide, Industrial Chemical Contamination and the Corporate Profit Imperative: The Case of Bougainville’, Social Justice, 23(4), 109–125. (ed.) 'State Crime by Proxy: Australia and the Bougainville Conflict', British Journal of Criminology, 52(4), 705-723. Denoon, D., and Spriggs, M. It wasn't just the "ambassador." Similarly, Australia’s Foreign Minister, who presided over one of the least known but nonetheless egregious periods in Australia’s foreign policy history, went on to become the head of the International Crisis Group, a major international NGO committed to conflict prevention and resolution. As this arti­ cle goes to press, there is an uneasy ceasefire in the civil war between Gov­ ernment and villagers which has claimed over 130 lives in the past year. The Eyewitness Testimony of Marilyn Part 1, The Eyewitness Testimony of Marilyn Part 2. Mobile squads raided four landowner villages, landowners were assaulted, their property seized, and their homes damaged. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion CLAIMS that Rio Tinto funded the civil war and fostered atrocities on Bougainville are being resurrected as a hurdle to the reopening there of the copper mine, whose proven reserves are worth at least $50 billion. May, R. J. No senior official from Australia or PNG has been formally censured, let aloneMore Today the opposition to the mine is strongest overseas, especially among Australia's trade unions and non-government organisations. Consequently, when customary landowners used industrial sabotage to close the mine in 1988, this regional dispute soon transformed into a major national crisis. ‘The Politics of the Panguna Landowners’ Association’, in May, R. J. and Spriggs, M. This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Bougainville Civil War Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. A senior PNGDF officer recalls: “We were not trained, we were not prepared, both in training and in our modus operandi. The mine began production in 1972 under the management of Bougainville Copper Ltd, with Papua New Guinea as a 20% shareholder. Despite Francis Ona’s warning a declaration of emergency was issued by the government on 26 June 1989. It was hoped that by doing so communities would begin to turn against the BRA, thus bringing about the ingredients for a civil war on Bougainville. Bernstein, H. (2000) ‘“The Peasantry” in Global Capitalism: Who, Where and Why?’, in Panitch, L. and Leys, C. World War II, when: because of the natural affluence of their village life and the coverage of the [Bougainville] district by Christian missions (mainly Catholic and non-Australian), the administration neglected to play a conspicuous role in development almost until copper was discovered. The PLA’s executive believed that this inquiry would vindicate the landowners. located on Bougainville island has pro­ duced no copper and gold due to sabot­ age by village landowners. Result: Bougainville Peace Agreement Establishment of the Autonomous Bougainville Government; Belligerents Papua New Guinea. Without the Prime Minister’s consent, the Police Commissioner ordered the mobile squads to arrest PLA leaders, a move which violated an amnesty that had been granted to landowners by the national government. Many are against the controversial idea, but Australian-based campaigner Vikki John from the Bougainville Freedom Movement, said there were issues with getting their message out. I am sure that that lesson is being learnt by the Bougainvilleans” (National Parliament of PNG, Record of Proceedings, 11 July, 1989). In a desperately unequal world facing a climate emergency, everyone has to pick a side. (eds.) Consequently during February 1990 BCL hastily abandoned Bougainville. (eds.) The discovery of vast copper ore deposits in Bougainville's Crown Prince Range in 1969 led to the establishment of a huge copper mine by the Australian company Conzinc Rio Tinto. (eds.) Between 1980 and 1987 the PLA helped landowners to increase their share of the benefits being generated by the mine (see Okole 1990). British-Australian mining giant Rio Tinto is seriously contemplating reopening its Bougainville copper and gold mine, Reuters reported on February 7. June 24, 2015 June 24, 2015 jwh1975 3 Comments. Il colonise l'archipel des Malouines (1763), qu'il remets aux Espagnols à la demande de Louis XV en 1765. This it was hoped would split the rebels into disparate groups, thus allowing the PNGDF to pick them off one by one. The Bougainville Crisis, Bathurst: Crawford House Press. Despite its attempt to glorify war and promote nationalist myths, he gives an honest account of Australian atrocities in war-both in decisions by the ruling class to throw away lives joining unnecessary conflicts and in the war crimes committed by the military in waging them. In PNG the state owns sub-surface minerals. I am talking frankly, they will knock a few heads in, burn a few houses down, shoot a few pigs, shoot at cars … The mobile squads operated with a modus operandi of frightening people” (Personal Communication, 2006). Indeed, PNG’s Cabinet was sensitive to the fact that a heavy handed approach might not be socially feasible in a country where tradition, kinship, and customary landownership remain pervasive forces. While a class-action has been taken against BCL by the landowners, the company nonetheless remains hopeful of returning to the island. I don’t know what I’d do without my weekly brain food. Australian supplied helicopters – which arrived in July – were immediately put to use, “offensive fire was regularly directed from the helicopters at suspected targets, including villages. At 3:30pm on 22 November 1988, three hooded men armed with axes and knives forced their way into the BCL explosives magazine, and removed a considerable quantity of boosters, detonating cords, delays, and detonators. Ce navire de guerre était prévu pour servir dans les colonies à l'étranger et transportait un armement assez performant pour sa taille. Fearing negative exposure, the national government banned the media from entering Bougainville. As a result of these joint efforts, approximately 10,000 to 15,000 people were killed on Bougainville. (2005). An anti-war movement evolved on Bougainville during the mid-1990s, spearheaded by womens’ groups, NGOs, and the church. Supply the defence force after the mine b… 1990s Bougainville civil war ensued which... Corruption, London: Hurst & company State security forces ] were ignorant thugs with guns ( Lasslett... Pla ’ s Police Commissioner her abdomen was then placed on the back-foot, consequently agreed. 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