1 page, 391 words . The Western military was increasingly barbarized. 3. The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty sprang up at around the same time. The Western Empire came to be dominated by military officers who subverted the office of Emperor and were often of barbarian origins. Barbarians tribes (called Wu Hu) in northern China, taking advantage of the infighting and chaos, revolted against the Jin in 304 led by a Liu Yuan. The Romans made extensive investments into building up good infrastructure, constructing an extensive road network. Fuji, the tea ceremony, and the sacred objects of nature revered in Shintoism.. In the West, the Roman Empire was at the height of its power, surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and having complete control over the goods traded there. Other than these trade routes, the Roman Empire and China had no connections. This was how Han thrived on agriculture for their economy more than trade. The Roman and Han empires were different with respect to how each came … Andrew Paul Stokes June 5, 2011 Ming Dynasty Economy It’s growth and it’s decline. These things made these civilizations grow and learn and sometimes fail, but they have set some of the basic rules for some civilizations today. The bureaucratic model of the Han Dynasty was modeled after that of the Western Zhou (1045–771 BC) and Qin (221–206 BC) Dynasties. Location 2. The Romans also faced the Sassanid Dynasty that more than once defeated the Romans in battle and even captured Emperor Valerian. The Han Dynasty, unlike the Romans, relied on free labor rather than slaves for agriculture. Next there was a similar trait in their economic structures. The Roman’s developed two different codes of law, one that applied to citizens and another that applied to non-citizens. The 7,000-mile Silk Road flourished during the Han dynasty, allowing trade between China and India. Each of the civilizations also had their differences. Agriculture 5. The emperors continued a tradition of emphasizing their divine or semi-divine majesty. They also shared similarities in economic structures such as how they were both apart of the Silk Road. This was not only a similarity, but a huge connection between two great civilizations. These empires inched progressively closer in the course of the Roman expansion into the ancient Near East and simultaneous Han Chinese military incursions into Central Asia. This was a problem for the East too, but unlike their Eastern counterparts, the Western Romans were unable to get rid of the barbarians. Comparing the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. That system was highly successful at eventually defeating the Xiongnu but it created new problems for Han China. Both the Han Dynasty and Imperial Rome were monarchies. Obviously, differences in culture, tradition, and location caused them to be different in ways; but even though these empires did not really have contact with one another, there were many similarities. It should be noted that Emperor Maurice (582–602) was overthrown by his soldiers because, in an attempt to save money, he ordered them to remain north of Danube during winter. The Pope justified this with the excuse that since a woman (Irene) was holding the throne in Constantinople, the Roman throne was vacant. Han however was only ruled by an emperor. Ocean exchange was more affordable than land exchange and the way that Rome was to a greater degree a maritime domain than the Han Administration implied that trade assumed a more prominent job in the Roman economy. County-level governance had a similar structure. This allowed the East to survive but greatly affected the West. Japan is a society whose culture is steeped in the traditions and symbols of the past: Mt. The Roman Domain and the Han Line of magnificent China coincided with Parthia and Kushan, spreading over the mid-scope of Eurasia and northern Africa. The Empire lowered taxes and subsidized public works. Finally, the Han introduced the first clear system of bureaucracy, in which the central government designated representatives in the provinces. They were both ruled by emperor’s, they shared the Silk Road and Women were treated like children. There were still differences in these civilizations political structures though. Methods of ruling in both china ( Han Dynasty ) and rome. The Han Dynasty, ruling over 60 million people and a territory of 1.5 million square kilometers, was administered by a bureaucracy consisting of over 120,000 officials. By Andrew Paul Stokes Beijing Union University 1|P a ge Andrew Paul Stokes June 5, 2011. The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire are commonly compared for many reasons. While the Sui founder Emperor Wen (581–604) was a capable ruler, his successor Emperor Yang spent too much money on vast infrastructure projects and pursued an expansion foreign policy, which most disastrously failed in Korea as his invasions were unsuccessful and led to a weakening of the central government and revolts. In the chart below discuss the most valuable similarities and differences between Han and Rome. This was different for Rome. Thus the Roman Empire was divided in three, much like the Han Dynasty. These trade routes were virtually the only thing that connected the two empires together. A new enemy emerged, this time from the West: the Qiang. During the eighth and ninth centuries, Byzantium was mired by internal conflict over the Christian icons (Iconoclast Emperors considered them a form of idolatry, putting them at odds with the Pope). On the subject of empires, we are focusing on the Han dynasty and the Roman Empire, because they demonstrate many of the key characteristics we use to define the concept. Major Differences Between Classical Athens and Han China Classical Athens and the Han Dynasty In China were two of the most famous and successful early clvlllzatlons. Methods of ruling in rome. Those challenges had effects on both Empires. Instead of using slave labor, Chinese landowners would use contracts and money to strike bargains with laborers. The cities themselves were ruled in the same manner as in antiquity, having an oligarchic administration and a semi-democratic facade. The garrisoned provinces of the Empire were under the direct control of the Emperor and ruled by his appointees while the public provinces were ruled by senators selected by lot, according to the Republican practice that was maintained. The Roman Empire and Han dynasty attract significant interests among historians. The Chancellor had beneath him thirteen bureaus (cao): West Bureau and East Bureau [both responsible for promotions and demotion of officials), Bureau of Imperial Household, Bureau of Memorials, Bureau of Litigation, Bureau of Communication and Standards, Bureau of Military Transportation, Bureau of Bandit Control, Bureau of Criminal Executions, Bureau of Soldiers, Bureau of Granaries, Bureau of Yellow Cabinet [maintenance of state records] and Bureau of Gold. Rome loved silk which China manufactured and china loved other goods from Rome. Both Empires eventually faced problems with barbarians invaders. Compare and Contrast Essay Roman Empire vs. Han Dynasty Bethany Corl HIEU 201-B11 September 29, 2014 Compare and Contrast Essay The Roman and Han empires flourished in culture, wealth, and technological advances at their pinnacle, leading not to future stability, but to greed, corruption, and ultimately their downfall. At the head of this vast state machinery was the Emperor. Eventually the Roman West fell under barbarian control while the Roman East managed to survive. Imperial Rome was ended through attacks from Germanic tribes, while the Yellow Turban uprising led to the fall of the Han Dynasty in China. As such, it fared less well on its own, in contrast to the East. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy. If a women didn’t have a boy or couldn’t have children she was blamed and generally killed. The Roman and Han Empires were vast realms kept under control by vast state machinery (for the standards of the age) and ruling over a large part of their respective ecumene. Each of these cultures Han and Rome had their political, economic, and social similarities. The man who reunified Rome was Emperor Aurelian (270–275). This accelerated the collapse of the central government that led to the division of China. They are easy to compare because they both faced challenges common to empires, including outside invasion, ruling over a diverse population, and ruling … Hire a subject expert to help you with Han Dynasty Vs. Roman Empire. Both were in the western margin of the civilized ecumene (the Greek states and the eastern Chinese states respectively) and were viewed as semi-barbaric. The Franks were closer to Italy and proved that they could protect the Pope and intervene effectively in Italy. They also had to do as men told them, and keep the home, raise the children especially boys. Both Rome and Han China developed an elaborate administration to rule over their vast realms. The major achievements of the early Han dynasty revolve around the first emperor to reign under the Mandate of Heaven, Wu Ti. Studies in science education. The Han Dynasty collapsed and gave way to Three Kingdoms while Rome faced a series of civil wars and insurrections. Both were in the western margin of the civilized ecumene (the Greek states and the eastern Chinese states respectively) and were viewed as semi-barbaric. However, both Empires would manage to survive; Eastern Rome (Byzantium) in the East and Jin in the South. The Han Dynasty and Roman Empire had a difference in their economic structures. In Rome the officials of the central administration may have been as high as 5000 during the Antonine times (96–180). The Han Dynasty, on the other hand, provided the basis for culture and government in China, one of the most powerful Eastern influences. Hominid- this is any creature of the family Hominidae or Primates and only one species exists today, Homo sapiens or human beings. The crops were different in each region: olive oil in North Africa and Spain, wheat in Egypt and vineyards in Gaul. and Empire 4. In the twilight of the Han Dynasty this army deteriorated as well, eventually becoming an army of barbarian recruits, convicts and poorly-trained conscripts), and the mass of conscripts that form the main base of the army (unlikely to be cohesive for long durations, relatively poorly trained, equipped, supplied and motivated compared to the Legion) raised at short notice. They would also have an entourage of freedmen and slaves. This was different for Rome. The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty China: A Comparison. Under Diocletian and Constantine, the Empire made a dynamic comeback. Unlike the Three Kingdoms, however, the Roman central government was better able to face the crisis and eventually reasserted central control over the Empire. Both Rome and Qin were militaristic states. New inventions and the bloom of art also contributed to the increase in trading during that period. The Roman Empire is thought to be the primary foundation of Western culture and modes of government. Han Dynasty Roman Empire 1. The Han Dynasty had a similar government system as Imperial Rome, the empires’ governments made the same mistakes that led to similar declines; however the government’s involvement and view on trade was different between these two empires. Neither Byzantium nor Jin could reconquer the lost parts of the Empire (although, under Justinian, the Byzantines came pretty close to it). Rome was not only ruled by an emperor, but a senate also. In the East, it were palace eunuchs, civil officials and princesses that came to dominate and those groups had to rely on the office of Emperor. While China today remains a unified entity, the Roman world remains fractured among European nation-states and Arab nation-states in West Asia and North Africa. Unlike the Roman Empire, in which military officers played a crucial role, the Han Empire was dominated by civilian officials and generals had officially little legitimate role in domestic affairs. The Han line (Chinese: 漢朝; pinyin: Hàncháo) was the second supreme line of China (206 BC–220 Promotion), went before by the Qin administration (221–206 BC) and prevailing by the Three Realms time frame (220–280 Advertisement). While Emperor Leo I (457–474) was able to eliminate the threat of the barbarian general Aspar and his Germanic warriors with the help of the Isaurians, the Western emperor Majorian (457–461) was murdered by the barbarian Ricimer. Eventually, three kingdoms emerged; Wei, Shu Han and Wu. The breakdown of imperial order meant that provinces had to assume responsibility for their defense and this led to insurrections in the 260s and 270s that threatened the unity of the Empire. The Han dynasty attempted to further Confucian thought as a means of inculcating certain values in the elite, and if possible, other classes. The Han Dynasty and Roman Empire were similar in their falls because they both fell to nomadic invaders, and because they both fell because of a decline in economic trade. The Roman organization of the economy was unprecedented for the Mediterranean world as it made much more extensive use of slave labor than past imperial regimes. Philosophy 7. The Emperors made use of freedmen for administrative duties, naming them to such offices as ab epistulis (in charge of correspondence), a libellis (in charge of petitions) and a rationibus (in charge of accounts). Although good relations were restored after his death, this weakened the already less rich and powerful West. Civil wars and internal instability (first with the usurpation of throne by Phocas and then with the civil war between Phocas and Heraclius) weakened the Empire and allowed its enemies to exploit its weakness (Slavs and Avars in Balkans and Persians in Middle East). The master of writing was the emperor’s secretary. Rome’s trade routes were built using stone, which made it very easy for merchants to travel from one city to another over a vast amount of land. Although they restored unity, the pressure of barbarian invaders and internal infighting would cause the loss of the heartland of both Empires (Italy and the West in the case of Rome, northern China in the case of Jin). While Theodosius the Great was able to once again restore a sense of stability and reunify the Empire, after his death in 395 the Empire was divided again in two. The Chinese also built large scale road networks to facilitate commerce and after defeating the Xiongnu in the West, they were able to begin trade with Persia and, indirectly, with Rome. Below the Emperor were the provinces. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. After The Inner Court was administered by two Outer Court ministries: the superintendent of the imperial clan and the privy treasurer. Introduction. child in the eyes of the law. This may not be a huge difference, but Han had nothing to bound together different classes. There exist similarities and disparities concerning the way both entities gained and lost their power. Both Rome and Qin were militaristic states. The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty were both powerful influential forces in their heyday. Even though they were. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. The Essay on Han China Vs Imperial Rome Political. The officials responsible for military affairs were civilian. They were responsible respectively for government administration, military affairs, and the censorial branch of the bureaucracy. The empire also faced internal problems as there was a succession of incompetent emperors who relied too much on court eunuchs and mismanaged the empire. Therefore the Han Dynasty and Imperial Rome relied heavily on the use of the Silk Roads and the Persian Royal Roads to communicate issues of politics. Their empire correlated with another empire whom were about five thousand miles away, in the Imperial Romans who lasted from 31 B.C.E to 476 C.E. Whereas under the Sui unity was restored in the Chinese ecumene, neither Justinian nor the Frankish Empire under Charlemagne were able to achieve this in the West. Mutual awareness remained low, and firm knowledge about each other wa… In the first two centuries AD for Rome and from the second century BC to second century AD in China, the Roman and Han Empires focused on internal homogenization and slowed down their expansion. This was a huge similarity between these cultures. Once again, the two parts of the Empire clashed due to the ambitions of Stilicho, magister militum of the West. The family most closely related to the family. Haven’t found the relevant content? The Han Dynasty extended its territorial reach to extend the Silk Road to gain access to raw materials and to extend trade into new region. The West also suffered the most from Germanic invasions from over the Rhine. Their products were then sold in urban markets. Nevertheless, the Byzantines were able to survive until the 15th century as an independent entity while the Holy Roman Empire would survive as an entity until 1806, when Napoleon forced its dissolution. The Western equivalent would have been if Charlemagne had conquered Byzantium and restored unity over the Roman world. A) The Han economy was based on agriculture, while Rome's was based on trade. The Han Dynasty 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. Women of both civilizations could not own property or vote. … However, it was his westward expansion that most influenced what became the Han Empire. Rome faced enemies on many fronts; Rhine, Danube, Britain and the East. https://phdessay.com/han-dynasty-vs-roman-empire/, The Western Roman Empire – the Rise & Fall, The Decline of the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire, Major Differences Between Classical Athens and Han China. The Roman army was an all volunteer,tough,professional experienced force,well trained,well equipped,and well led.The Han army comprised mostly of peasant conscripts,and the Roman legions would have gone through them like a knife through butter.As for the numbers question,Roman armies were well used to fighting battles and wars when heavily outnumbered,so I don't believe that it would … Eventually they were able to gain hegemonic power over a large sector of the ecumene, Italy for Rome and Sichuan for Qin. This contributed to the collapse of the dynasty. In 284, Diocletian came to the imperial throne and instituted a series of reforms. However, it stood no chance of restoring Roman control over the ecumene. A similar development took place in the Roman Empire. In the later decades of the second century and during the third century, Rome faced a multitude of problems. Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/han-dynasty-vs-roman-empire/. Despite the success of Roman arms and the fact that new provinces were not unprofitable, the Empire declined for several reasons: Thus in the seventh century, the Empire almost collapsed as it lost most of the Balkans to the Slavs and Syria, Levant, Egypt and North Africa to the Arabs. The governors, who were assisted by a quaestor (in public provinces) or a procurator (in imperial provinces), legates, military tribunes, centurions and informal employees (‘friends’). Eventually they were able to g… They can also help and American audience combine more familiar knowledge, usually about Rome, with an appreciation for less familiar classical … (2016, Aug 24). Rome and Han: A comparison of empires. Both the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire used the silk trade routes, particularly over land. 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