If the decision is that the risk is too great, a segregated mode of operation should be used, and the system certification made accordingly. The choice of technique or device obviously will depend on the sensitivity of the data resident within the computing system, the physical location of the user terminal, the security level to which it and its communication links are protected, the set of users that have access to it at any time, etc. Production models of a given design need be tested only to verify that all safeguards are present and properly functioning. The user must be able to obtain the complete set of security parameters associated with information when he is being asked to receipt for it. Thus, the security flag contains all the information necessary to control access. You can use both the traditional UNIX file protection or the more secure access control lists (ACLs) to protect your files. Data storage shall be organized and controlled at the level of the basic computer system in terms of information units, each of which has a classification descriptor plus applicable special-access categories (as required by the presence of caveats) and other labels that apply to the information unit as a whole. In a terminal-oriented system, a user must announce himself to the system through a log-on procedure that requires standard identification and accounting information, and a specific user authentication step so that the computer system can verify the identity of the individual at the terminal. Uncleared users over whom there is a minimum administrative control and who work with unclassified data through physically unprotected terminals connected to the computing central by unprotected communications lines. Comment: While a properly functioning system already knows, to the degree adequate for logging of system activity, where information should be or to whom it has been delivered, the requirement for a receipt recognizes a need for an acknowledgment from the recipient (person or program) that he is aware that he has received classified information of a particular level. However, there need be no prohibition on the assignment of these two classes of maintenance requirements to separate individuals or groups of individuals. Comment: Ideally, all information provided a user, whether printed out in hard copy or electronically displayed, should be accompanied by all relevant security parameters. Each user (or specific group of users) shall be administratively designated (identified) to the computer system by the System Administrator, with the concurrence of the System Security Officer. It should be noted, however, that tapes, drums, or discs controlled in this fashion must be classified and protected appropriately for the highest level of classification of the information written on them until erased by an acceptable method. Frequent automatic checks of these protection mechanisms by the computing system itself, and periodic checks of the procedures by system personnel shall be made. Lectures cover threat models, attacks that compromise security, and techniques for achieving security, based on recent research papers. Comment: This recommendation does not specify the details of tests and inspections to be conducted, nor does it specify when such tests and inspections are necessary. The privilege granted to an individual on the basis of prescribed investigative procedures to have formal access to classified information when such access is necessary to his work. The main security problem in such a closed environment is largely one of maintaining the data and program integrity of each individual user. At a particular installation, the System Security Officer will be aware of the levels of classification and special access categories in his system, and must be able to formulate the detailed procedures for shifting the operational mode of the system from one to another. The objective of Supervisor protection is to deny a user program the ability to penetrate the Supervisor (which contains security control safeguards without detection by the Supervisor. The basic philosophy of a program executing in the user state is that it is able to process anything that it has available within the region of core memory (or logical address space) assigned to it. Basically, they are intended to provide the most efficient utilization of expensive computing facilities for the widest range of users. Similarly, it is an inconvenience to other users to be interrupted even briefly in order to recertify the system. While the present paper frames the discussions in terms of time-sharing or multiprogramming, we are really dealing not with system configurations, but with security; today's computational technology has served as catalyst for focusing attention on the problem of protecting classified information resident in computer systems. The three formal national clearances are Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential. System Maintenance Personnel. It, and all CLEARANCES within the component, are listed in the definition. This requirement does not imply that all information read from a storage device must be treated as if it were classified to the highest level of any data ever recorded on the medium. For example, one applet in Control Panel lets you configure the mouse pointer size (among other things), while another allows you to adjust all the sound-related settings. Positive control procedures should be used to assure that magnetic tapes or magnetic disc packs containing classified information of one level of classification or special category are not accidentally used at some other inappropriate level. The threats of system denial or intelligent deception must be countered by other controls. It is possible to modify this information subsequently through the on-line use of the user clearance update language. Finally, Part D, on Management and Administrative Control, was written by Willis H. Ware, and utilizes ideas from "Security of Classified Information in the Defense Intelligence Agency's Analyst Support and Research System" (February 1969, C-3663/MS-5), and from "Security Procedures for the RYE System" (W. B. Ellis, December 1968). In addition to the language specification, it is necessary to specify the algorithms for processing this information. (If necessary, its date of issuance can be included.). The reader is directed to Annex A for the formal System Access Specification in a slightly modified Backus-Naur Form (BNF). A user program may accidentally attempt to execute a prohibited instruction because the user has made a mistake in his programming; similarly, a sequence of instructions in a user program can inadvertently create a ''false instruction," one whose bit-pattern is undefined in the machine; this can give rise to unpredicted results, including bypassing security safeguards. Remote consoles also present potential radiation vulnerabilities. Control Panel: The control panel is the computer that arms and disarms the security systems, communicates with each installed component, sounds the alarm when a security zone is breached, and communicates with an alarm monitoring company. However, the system logs should record all unsuccessful attempts to access classified files. Additional safeguards against misuse of the software or malfunction by it can be incorporated with appropriate procedural controls. For example, that portion of defense classified information that concerns nuclear matters is entrusted to the Atomic Energy Commission, which is responsible for establishing and promulgating rules and regulations for safeguarding it and for controlling its dissemination. Comment: A program might be intrinsically classified because it implements classified algorithms, and, thus, its classification establishes a lower bound when it runs as part of a job. Meanwhile, responsible authorities must have leeway to select the degaussing technique proven best for the particular media under their control. Restart after unscheduled shutdown. It is desirable that system programs which have unusually broad capabilities, such as being able to access all permanent files in secondary storage or in temporary working stores) be programmed so as to print console messages notifying the System Operators of the specific privileges being extended; before proceeding to implement such privileges the system should require explicit permission. However, their sufficiency for an open system cannot be guaranteed in the abstract. Following use of a terminal by a person not cleared to receive information classified equivalent to the terminal's maximum clearance, authentication of a new user is mandatory before initiating transactions involving higher classifications. The Task Force has no specific comments to make with respect to personnel security issues, other than to note that control of the movement of people must include control over access to remote terminals that handle classified information, even if only intermittently. An essential aspect of effective control is standardization of activities and the need for standards throughout the system. The purpose of this is to provide for consistency in the minimization of the user's clearance set. Since it is virtually impossible to determine in every situation whether a computing system is working as designed, it is obvious that a machine not operating properly is not only of doubtful utility, but also poses a grave risk to the security of the information being handled by it. ; for receiving and processing requests to modify them; and for actions to be taken in case of a system emergency or an external crisis. Thus, he has broad and critical powers, and becomes a potential target for subversion. The action taken by the System Security Officer, perhaps in conjunction with the Responsible Authority or the System Administrator, must reflect the operational situation that the system supports. Since a complete proof-of-protection is not within the present state of the art, particularly for existing computer systems, it is recommended that the system designer estimate the probability of occurrence of a single failure or the combination of failures that could result in a disclosure of classified information. This should provide the Supervisor more protection than is given to user programs against faulty programming or machine errors. Obviously, such programs must be carefully designed and must be faultless. Internal encryption could be applied not only to the primary magnetic core storage, but also to secondary file storage. These special types of clearances at given levels are not always specifically identified with a unique additional marking or label. Information extracted from the device by normal means (e.g., via the computer system) may be properly handled at the classification of the information per se, provided, however, that all other criteria that relate to handling of information at that classification level are satisfied. Responsible Authority. His liability is therefore defined, and any investigation which later may arise because of a system malfunction or divulgence of classified information would be facilitated. Control 13 – Data Protection. It is recommended that this certification be performed by an agency or a special team not part of the using agency and separate from design or maintenance groups. The data collected by the system log can also be aggregated at intervals to provide performance statistics that indicate the efficacy of existing security safeguards, and to develop new or improved procedures and controls. Deliberate Penetration. By extension, the concept can be applied to equipment. The report of the Task Force, which functioned under the auspices of the Defense Science Board, was published by The Rand Corporation in February 1970 for the Office of the Director of Defense Researc… Comment: The hardware and software maintenance personnel are permitted to service not only the normal, basic features of the computing system, but also the security control features. If a user is to be granted access to a given file, then his national clearance level must equal or exceed the national classification level of the file. the system must concurrently check all its internal protection mechanisms. Nearly a decade later the report is still a valuable comprehensive discussion of security controls for resource-sharing computer systems. A suggested procedure is given below: The matter of overall equipment configuration becomes especially important in large systems containing many computers, either collocated or geographically distributed. In any event. In the supervisor state, the machine is able to execute all instructions, including those which affect security controls. These instances are follows: Comment: The Task Force does not recommend any particular recertification periodicity, but suggests that initially, at least, the question of periodic inspection and recertification be jointly determined by the System Security Officer and the Responsible Authority. Provided that techniques approved by the appropriate cognizant agency are used, the resource-sharing system can itself be utilized to generate authentication words, provided the output is available only at a designated terminal and that the procedure is carried out under the cognizance of the System Security Officer. Comment. The issue is considered at this point in connection with policy and operational recommendations, but is also discussed later in the context of hardware recommendations. In effect, a required label can be regarded as a pseudo-classification, accessed by any of the clearances listed in the Security Component Definition (or their synonyms). Under emergency conditions, it may be necessary to grant a user or a group of users unrestricted access to all files in the system or to a set of files regardless of clearances, special access categories, and/or need-to-know restrictions. There must be continuous surveillance of the operations area by fully cleared personnel. However, where the security structure of the file is established, the procedures outlined in this recommendation will apply. Adequate DOD regulations exist for dissemination, control, storage, and accountability of classified removable items. In practice, not all the possible combinations have been implemented, and not all the possibilities would provide useful operational characteristics. Security Parameters. Four Gifts for Your Mental Health This (Pandemic) Holiday Season, The Compensation System for Potential Side Effects Is an Important Part of a COVID-19 Vaccine Campaign, Getting to Know Military Caregivers and Their Needs, Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change, Improving Psychological Wellbeing and Work Outcomes in the UK, Part B. Design certification is the process of measuring, testing, and evaluating the probable effectiveness under operating conditions of the security control features of a stable system — i.e., one whose software and hardware have been completed. Redundancy might take such forms as duplicate software residing in different parts of the memory; software checks that verify hardware checks, and vice versa; self-checking hardware arrangements; error-detecting or error-correcting information representations; duplication of procedural checks; error-correcting internal catalogs and security flags; or audit processes that monitor the performance of both software and hardware functions. Certification of an overall system, determined on the basis of inspection and test results, shall be characterized in terms of the highest classification or most restrictive specific special-access categories that may be handled. Thus, positive statements about gradation of security controls await the design, implementation, and operational experience with a few such systems. Since the security risk probabilities of present manual systems are not well known, it is difficult to determine whether a given design for a secure computer system will do as well as or better than a corresponding manual arrangement. Possibilities for handling this conflict include imposing a time delay on the user before allowing him to continue (one minute, for example), but imposing a shorter delay (10 seconds, for instance) if he has stated that he is in a debug mode and this statement has been verified by the System Security Officer; imposing successively longer delays on the user as the frequency of his infractions increases; notifying the System Security Officer when a user has exceeded a certain number of violations. The recommendations of the Defense Science Board's Task Force on Computer Security represent a compilation of techniques and procedures which should be considered both separately and in combination when designing or adopting data processing systems to provide security or user privacy. However, there is the recurring question of the risk of inadvertent disclosure of classified information through software, hardware, or a combination of failures; in such a case, it would be necessary to prove that a single failure or a combination of failures cannot occur. Thus, internal checks are necessary to insure that the protection is operative. Because of the variety of Supervisors and the fact that most resource-sharing systems are delivered by the manufacturer with a Supervisor, it is difficult to specify requirements in detail. In addition to the direct advantages of vastly improved resource utilization and greatly increased economy of operation, they can drastically reduce service turn-around time, enable users with little or no formal knowledge of programming to interact directly with the machine, and extend computing capabilities to many smaller installations that would be unable to support a dedicated machine. is the 90%. "Information" is considered to include both computer programs and data. Alternatively, if such user information as authentication words or access protocols must be protected when in punchcard form, an arrangement can be made to have the card deck read under the visual surveillance of its owner, and immediately returned to him. The state of system design of large software systems is such that frequent changes to the system can be expected. In the passive mode, the intervener may attempt to monitor the system by tapping into communication lines, or by monitoring compromising emanations. On the other hand, the security controls described in Parts B through D can markedly reduce the probability that an undetected attempt to penetrate a resource-sharing computer system will succeed. By their nature, computer systems bring together a series of vulnerabilities. A particular point to note is that the absence of a parity check in the memory or in information transfers can permit errors which perturb, disable, or mislead security controls. Such techniques or devices shall be sufficient to reduce the risk of unauthorized divulgence, compromise, or sabotage below that required by the sensitivity of the data resident in the system. Security control assurance includes procedures for reporting anomalous behavior of the system or security infractions; for monitoring security controls, including those on communications; for assuring continuity of security control; for devolution of responsibility in case of personnel nonavailability; and for auditing user and system behavior. In the case where the Supervisor is responsible for data segregation, it must check the authority of terminals that originate traffic, must properly label (internally) all traffic, must label all tasks whose execution is required in order to service a user request, must keep track of all tasks and of the programs that execute them, must validate the security markings (including security flags) on all tasks and control access to files on the basis of the markings, and must validate (by reference to internal tables or files) the authority of a remote location to receive output information with a given security marking or flag. A second constraint, at least initially, is the assumption that the general tenets of the existing, familiar, manual security control procedures will prevail. However, a terminal not authorized to access the system in the new mode should not be given any information about the specific classification status of the new mode. This restriction is a double check to prevent unauthorized execution of broad-capability programs with malicious intent. Since commercially designed Supervisors and operating systems have not included security control, it is to be expected that the average commercial software will not provide the standards, conventions, and capabilities required. Computer security basically is the protection of computer systems and information from harm, theft, and unauthorized use Second, the inclusion of this case would introduce a logical inconsistency in the security control processing described herein, thereby making it possible to circumvent the system. The currently known principal hardware mechanisms for isolating programs include base-addressing registers and various forms of hardware checking circuits to assure that memory addresses generated within the processor are in fact restricted to those permitted for the programs of a particular user. In the present specification, the capability to specify a terminal access list has not been included; i.e., a list of the authorized users of a given terminal. The REQUIREMENTS statement is the vehicle for describing situations in which a particular clearance requires the simultaneous existence or non- existence of other clearances or access authorizations (see Examples 2–4 in Annex B). System. For example, if the access control codes are all four-digit numbers, a user can pick any four-digit number, and then, having gained access to some file, begin interacting with it in order to learn its contents. If a trouble condition has caused the system to shut down, it is necessary that there be procedures to handle restart, including the loading of a new, certified copy of the Supervisor software, clearing the internal state of the equipment in order to clean up memory untidiness resulting from the shutdown, verifying correct loading of the Supervisor, validating security controls and security parameters, and certifying the system security status by the System Security Officer. Control 18 – Application Software Security. Changes in the hardware or software of the system shall be installed for normal operations only by the designated System Maintenance Personnel or personnel operating under their observation and supervision, with the concurrence of the System Security Officer. This recommendation should also aid in avoiding unnecessary classification of equipment or software. On the other hand, it might also be true that the volume of classified and the volume of unclassified work are such that an economic solution might be a separate machine for each part of the workload. Identify all system software features, barriers, and components that have a security control function. The point is included as part of certification because proper tests and inspections must be conducted in order to ascertain that the security parameters have in fact been correctly inserted into the system (and accepted by it), both initially and each time the security parameters of the system are modified. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Candidate, Pardee RAND Graduate School, Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. Several jobs are simultaneously resident in the system, each being handled by the various system components so as to maximize efficient utilization of.the entire configuration. 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